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Past Projects

Trans Health Survey

Co-Principal Investigators: Kimberly Balsam, Ph.D., & Rylan Jay Testa, Ph.D

Other Contributors: Jayme Peta, M.A.

Description: Between February and June 2013, trans-identified and LGB researchers from the Center for LGBTQ Evidence-based Applied Research (CLEAR) conducted this survey of trans people’s stress, resilience, and health to improve understanding of what stressors and resilience factors influence trans people’s physical and emotional health. Measures included in the survey included questions about participant demographics, gender, minority-specific stress and resilience, general stress and resilience, and current mental and physical health. These researchers aimed to use the information provided by all participants to improve medical and mental health services for all trans people. Participants were recruited from national and California-based transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) listservs, social media sites related to TGNC and LGBT issues, and contact with leaders in the TGNC community. The term trans is used most broadly to include anyone who currently identifies as any gender different from the sex assigned to them at birth. Of the 1427 individuals who began the survey, the final participants included 940 persons who identify as men and women (as long as different from sex assigned at birth), trans woman, MTF, trans man, FTM, genderqueer, both male and female, neither male nor female, and crossdresser.


Goldblum, P., Testa, R., Pflum, S., Hendricks, M., Xavier, J., Bradford, J., & Bongar, B. (2012). The relationship between gender-based victimization and suicide attempts in transgender people. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(5), 468-475.

Pflum, S. R., Testa, R. J., Balsam K. F., Goldblum, P. B., & Bongar, B. (2015).  Social support, trans community connectedness, and mental health symptoms among transgender and gender nonconforming adults.  Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2, 281-286.

Testa, R. J., Habarth, J., Peta, J., & Balsam, K. (2014) The Gender Minority Risk and Resilience Measure. Psychology and Sexuality, 6, 2.

Testa, R. J., Habarth, J., Peta, J., Balsam, K. F., & Bockting, W. (2015). Development of the Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure. Psychology Of Sexual Orientation And Gender Diversity.

Testa, R. J., Michaels, M. S., Bliss, W., Rogers, M. L., Balsam, K. F., & Joiner, T. (2017).  Suicidal ideation in transgender people: Gender minority stress and interpersonal theory factors.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126, 125-136.

Testa, R. J., Rider, N., Haug, N., & Balsam, K. F. (2017). Gender confirming medical interventions and eating disorder symptoms among transgender individuals. Health Psychology. Advance online publication.

Testa, R. J., Sciacca, L. M., Wang, F., Hendricks, M., Goldblum, P., Bradford, J., & Bongar, B. (2012) The Effects of Violence on Transgender People. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43, 5, 452-459.

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